Photographers can’t professionally fine-tune an image of a mountainous landscape’s foreground and background on a tiny little iPhone screen. A data scientist can’t layout graphs, matrices, vectors, and spreadsheets on a tiny little iPhone screen. A customer service representative can’t troubleshoot a technology problem without searching through several device schematics, handle several different calls at once, be on the phone with one customer, be texting with another customer, and looking at a user’s guide that shows which buttons and switches do what things on a tiny little phone screen. Can you imagine trying to design, read, write, and debug code, and layout your UI with Xcode on an iPhone? (I could on a large iPad or MacBook, but not a phone).
How do you find typos (syntax errors) in an improperly formatted
plist (property list) file, especially when Xcode provides absolutely no detail about badly formed XML? I often see
plist files with a thousand or more lines of text! In this article, I’ll show you how to fix
plist bugs — and do a few other things — by using the little-known
plutil command line tool.
How many times have you seen the following error message, shown below in textual and graphical format, when doing a build?
: couldn't parse contents of '/path/to/project/projectName/projectName/Info.plist': The data couldn't be read because it isn't in the correct format.
Jump straight to the fix or take a minute to read a little background.
My original article — “How to Use Xcode Instrument to Optimize Your Swift Code” — was published on appcoda.com.
I still run across curmudgeons who flat out reject techniques like object-oriented programming (especially inheritance and polymorphism), protocols and protocol-oriented programming (especially composition), generics, and closures. On a conscious level, the curmudgeons usually reject these technique because of their supposed “massive” performance cost. On a subconscious level, the curmudgeons don’t understand these technologies. So do we give up all hope or do we accept the fact that compiler designers have come up with brilliant optimizations that ameliorate the use of such high-level technologies? We believe in Swift’s compiler designers. Do we realize that there are great tools like Xcode Instruments that help us find awkward implementations of these techniques and give us the opportunity to come up with our own optimizations? Yes.
My original article — “Dividing and Conquering Your Xcode Projects with Targets” — was published on appcoda.com.
In this tutorial, I’ll show you how to leverage Xcode targets to control the massive complexity involved in building iOS (and macOS, watchOS, and tvOS) apps. A lot of time can be saved when developers realize that not everything they’re required to do has to be done by writing software language code, like Swift. Integrated development environments (IDEs) like Xcode offer very powerful tools, like targets, that allow developers to decouple nitty-gritty tasks that used to be done in code (or manually) out into project configuration settings. I’ve found that, because of the sheer number of project settings, developers often take one look at say, Xcode’s long, long list of Build Settings, and want to curl up and pass out. When finished reading this tutorial, you’ll see that you can neatly organize code into one project that’s capable of producing binaries for iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS.
How many of you use freeform drawing in Xcode playgrounds? How many of you understand how drawing in playgrounds work? Xcode playgrounds can serve as great tools for prototyping your in-development apps, whether it be experimenting with algorithms or toying with ideas for app user interfaces. Granted that drawing in playgrounds is not that well documented. So the subject of this tutorial is how drawing in Xcode playgrounds works and a good number of pointers to help you start drawing in playgrounds. Here’s an example of what I’m talking about:
While creating a new Xcode playground on my MacBook Pro today, I got the most bizarre error message: “No such module ‘UIKit'”. I was using Xcode Version 9.2 (9C40b). Yes, I know there are more recent versions, but I haven’t had the need to upgrade my MacBook Pro. Parenthetically, I do have Xcode 9.4.1 (9F2000) and Xcode 10 beta 6 (10L232m) loaded on my main development machine. I’ll share the solution to this problem with you in the hopes that you, like me, will learn something new about Xcode today.
In this tutorial, I’ll show you how to track down memory leaks within Xcode via the Memory Graph Debugger, new since Xcode 8. This is a powerful visual tool and doesn’t require you to step out of Xcode and start the Leaks Instrument. Once we identify some memory leaks, I’ll show you how to plug those leaks by using the Swift language’s
unowned qualifiers, and talk about the differences between the two qualifiers.
I recently discussed iOS memory management and memory leaks that occur when using reference semantics and reference types (classes) in my tutorials on “Swift 4 memory management via ARC for reference types (classes)” and “Fixing memory leaks — strong reference cycles — in Swift 4.” After reading these articles, you should understand how easy it is to inadvertently encode and introduce a strong reference cycle into your Swift 4 code and thus end up with a memory leak. You should also understand how generally straightforward it is to fix such a memory leak. My sample code in both tutorials was didactic. What about real-world projects with hundreds of thousands or millions of lines of code? Suppose that you’ve heard reports of diminished app performance, low memory warnings, or just plain app crashes. Finding memory leaks in your code is quite cumbersome when trying to debug via rote inspection, setting breakpoints, adding logging statements, etc.
Most developers assume that Swift is a “safe” language in terms of memory management. That’s probably true most of the time, but there are some notable exceptions, especially when dealing with certain scenarios when using what are called “reference types” and “reference semantics.”
This tutorial is ultimately meant to prepare you for in-depth discussion of what seems to be inevitable shift from reference semantics to value semantics. Before I plunge into this software development paradigm shift, I want to provide you with a strong and understanding of how memory is managed when you create and use instances of the
class type, a reference type. Oftentimes, reference-based memory management “just works” … until it doesn’t. Things don’t work mainly in situations where
class types are designed with interdependencies and/or when multiple threads access the same instance (object) of a
class type, and you get “memory leaks.” Swift manages reference-based memory with a technology Apple has dubbed “Automatic Reference Counting” (ARC). Before even begin talking about debugging memory leaks, you must understand ARC.
This discussion does not pertain to memory management for value types (
enum), but note that I will mention value types and value semantics several times in terms of comparison to reference types and reference semantics.